of Nut Tree Literature
This bibliography has been compiled for anyone interested in any aspect of nut trees in
northeastern North America, from the history, biology, horticulture, silviculture, to the use of
fruit or wood. A first edition was done in 1985 by the members of the Nut Use Special Interest
Group: Mark Jones, Polly Sue Forrestall and Hank Jones. The major literature contributors were
Paul Bender, Alec Jones, Don Stalker, George Truscott, and Irene Woolford. Summaries and recent
entries are by
The bibliography is organized in alphabetical order by author's last name, with the exception of
the Black Walnut Advisory Sheet series and Harrowsmith magazine, whose articles are listed
together. Most publications cited are held in the main library of Agriculture and Agri-Food
Canada, in The Sir John Carling Building on the Central Experimental Farm, Ottawa.
NNGA: Northern Nut Growers Association
OMAF: Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food
OMNR: Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources
USDA: United States Department of Agriculture
anon. The planting of hardwood trees and shrubs. 1974. Forest Management Branch, OMNR.
They require techniques quite different from conifers. Most are very demanding in their site
requirements. Chemical weed control "has become an essential step" in site preparation and
anon. Growing walnut for fun and profit. 1975. Fine Hardwoods/American Walnut Association.
1730-666 North Lake Shore Drive, Chicago IL 60611. Agdex 246. Basic advice on how to plant
and care for Black Walnut for timber.
anon. Red oak whip production in containers. Paper presented at the Conference of the Eastern
Region of the International Plant Propagators Society, 7-10 December 1987, Chicago.
anon. Walnut seed production and germination. The Nutshell (NNGA) 42(4) 1988. Agdex 246.
A summary of practise for Juglans ailantifolia, J.californica, J.cinerea, J.hindsii, J.major,
J.microcarpa, J.nigra & J.regia.
An American Wood. USDA Forestry Service. 1973. Agdex 333. A series of booklets, one on
each important wood group. Includes detailed range maps, identification photos and principal
uses. American chestnut, black walnut, buckeye, butternut, oak, pecan, and sycamore.
anon. Common Pests of Trees in Ontario. OMNR.
anon. Guidelines for Tree Seed Crop Forecasting and Collecting. OMNR.
anon. Guide to Weed Control. Publication 75, OMAF.
anon. Silviculture Fact Sheets for Common Ontario Grown Nut Trees. SONG.
anon. Woody Plant Seed Manual. Miscellaneous Publication No. 654. U.S. Forest Service.
Black Walnut Advisory Sheets. Northeastern Area, State & Private Forestry. 6816 Market
St., Upper Darby, PA 19082. Agdex 246. Excellent popular summaries for timber growers of
the technical work done at the North Central Forest Experiment Station, Walnut Research
Center, Carbondale IL. They became the Walnut Notes in 1988.
- Funk,D. Frost dieback and genetics. #2, Sept. 1968. Southern trees grow faster, but are
more susceptible to frost dieback. Stock originating from trees grown within 150 miles latitude
of the planting site is best for veneer log production.
- Losche, C. Choosing a site for planting black walnut. #3, Sept. 1968. Soil texture and
internal drainage are the most important factors. Look for sandy to silty loam over limestone,
with no coarse sand or gravel, acid clayey subsoil, or grey mottling, within 3' of the surface.
Avoid steep south-facing slopes and any sites with existing stunted vegetation.
- Corrective pruning produces a better tree. #4, Oct. 1963. Remove multiple leaders as soon
as possible; crooks will straighten later.
- Williams, B. A Small seedling gives small results. #5, Oct. 1963. Large diameter seedlings
have highest survival and future growth. 3/8" seedlings (diameter 1" above the root collar) grow
almost twice as fast as 3/16"; anything less than 3/16" is unsuitable.
- Small walnut trees need their freedom. #7, Jan. 1969. Use of pre-emergent Atrazine and
Simazine to remove competing plants.
- Money trees. #8, Feb. 1969. A 20"dbh black walnut with a 32' clear stem grows $20 per
- Krajicek, J. The space problem. #9, Mar. 1969. The best crown width for black walnut is 24
times the trunk dbh plus 5'.
- More about competition control. #11, May. 1969. Use of post-emergent 2,4-D and
Dalapon to remove competing plants.
- A new start. #12, June 1969. When a young tree becomes multistemmed, cut it off 1"
above the ground and select a new, single, sprout.
- A glimpse at clear-stem pruning. #13, July 1969. Wait until 3 growing seasons after
planting, then prune no more than 50% of the total height of the tree.
- Is fertilization the answer? #14, Aug. 1969. Generally no - it grows weeds faster than black
- Bushels per acre vs. board feet per acre. #15, Sept. 1969. Grow corn on good shallow soil,
not black walnuts.
- Keep those crowns apart. #16, Sept. 1969. Black walnut crowns increase about 8" in
diameter per year, so thinning will be required within 12 years if there is currently 8' between
- Bey, C. Latitude, genetics and growth. #17, Nov. 1969. Walnut growth rate over the first
three years increases by 6% per 100 miles of latitude of origin in the US Northeast.
- Losche, C. Soil mottling - a site indicator. #18, Jan. 1970. Walnut tree growth is very
sensitive to impervious subsoil. 25 year old trees grow to almost twice the dbh and 1.5x the
height on soil with no mottling in the top 4', compared to soil with mottling below 1'.
- Initial spacing considerations. #19, Mar. 1970. Optimum spacing provides sufficient trees
to allow removal of poor quality ones and still maintain full site utilization. The optimum is
100-150 sq.ft. per tree.
- Don't forget the nuts. #20, May 1970. A 1' dbh black walnut will produce an average of
one bushel of unhulled nuts annually, 16 lb hulled nuts, 2 lb kernels.
- Black walnut - an antagonistic tree. #22, July 1970. A black walnut kills pine trees within
its root spread, but few other important timber species.
- Preplanting preparation. #23, Sept. 1970. Choose the site the year before, clear it of brush
and mow it.
- Don't give up on crooked trees. #25, Feb. 1971. If most of the stem is straight, cut back to
a healthy bud on the inside of the crooked leader that is within 5" of the desired growth line. If
the stem has no sense of direction, coppice it: cut it off 1-2" above the ground, then remove all
but one resulting sprout before mid-June.
- A glimpse at a good eight year old plantation. #27, Aug. 1971. Two acres in southern
Illinois were planted with 1/4" seedlings on a 15' grid in 1963. Herbicides were used for weed
control for 5 years. Corrective and clear-stem pruning were done as required. Many of the trees
are now 5" dbh and 25' tall, and the canopy is almost closed.
- Plantation establishment - nuts and squirrels. #29, Jan. 1972. Planting seedlings works
better than planting nuts - even a single squirrel can pilfer a large area.
- Crown release - a growth stimulant. #30, Feb. 1972. Maintaining a spacing of 5-10'
between crowns gives optimum site production.
- A new canker disease in black walnut plantations. #31, Mar. 1972. It circles the stem just
above the ground line; wood underlying the canker area is heavily stained; roots seem not to be
- A good walnut plantation is no accident. #36, Aug. 1974. 1. choose a good site, 2. prepare
it properly, 3. use good planting stock, 4. plant properly, and 5. control weeds.
- Tree straightening - nature's way. #37, Nov. 1974. Minor crooks straighten out as a tree
- A good place to plant - forest openings. #38, Nov. 1975. 1/4 acre openings are good for
black walnut as long as competing vegetation is controlled.
- Hidden soil characteristics are important. #39, Feb. 1976. The number one cause of
hardwood plantation failure is unsuitable soil. Use a probe and shovel to explore a plantation site
- Autumn-olive looks good. #40, July 1976. The growth of Elaeagnus umbellata
(zone 5), a nitrogen-fixing shrub, matches that of black walnut, resulting in better growth of the
walnut by comparison with a pure stand.
- Revisiting a 14 year old plantation. #41, July 1977. The average dbh is 4.8", average height
24'. Thinning to 105 trees per acre from the existing 194 is planned in 6 years.
- It pays to be choosy. #42, June 1978. The highest value is obtained from planting 300
seedlings per acre and selectively removing the smallest trees to a final harvest of 25-35 trees per
acre - $3000 per acre better than removing every other tree when thinning.
- New thinning guidelines. Jan. 1979. Crown Competition Factor works best for choosing
- Wood heat. 3:8-13 (1975). Clarence Coons on a properly managed woodlot - hickory, red
oak and beech top the list of desirable trees.
- Woods & forests: do-it-yourself dept. 10:64-65 (1976). "His offer for the three or four
old [black walnut] trees would have been enough, at that time, to put the farmer's two children
- Trees without trauma. 34:65-71 (1980). A beginner's guide to caring for nursery trees: a big
hole backfilled with it's own earth, no fertilizer, lots of water and mulch, and a rodent guard.
- Stewardship of the trees. 40:53-65 (1981). A guide to selling the timber from a small
woodlot - "some [walnut] trees are incredibly valuable". The Niagara Parks Commission has
problems with timber rustlers stealing the walnut trees growing in their parks.
- Aaaah Nuts! 64:97-100 (1985). The joys of nut cooking.
- Tough Nuts. 72:79-97,109 (1987). Bill MacKentley's hardy trees with tender nutmeats at the
St. Lawrence Nurseries - alpricot and filbert for small holdings; beech, black walnut, butternut,
chestnut, hickory, bur oak.
- Woodlot wizardry - commonsense silviculture that works like magic. 83:91-98 (1989)
- Home Sawyer. 89:71-77 (1990). Use of a portable band-saw mill - the saw moves, not the
log; the thin blade increases useable lumber 20% over circular saws, but don't skimp on the
- Apple's seeds. 89:79-83 (1990). Heather Apple and her Heritage Seed Program.
- Life's a beech. 138:20 (1998). Beech bark disease is coming to Fagus grandifolia -
white beech scale followed by clusters of red fungus fruiting bodies. Mechanically remove it fast,
before the fungus gets hold - the scale can't fly.
Walnut Notes. USDA Forest Service, North Central Forest
Experiment Station, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale IL 62901. 1988.
Agdex 246. Precise, concise and detailed looseleaf book for black walnut timber producers.
Althen, F.W. von. Planting and tending recommendations. Environment Canada
Forestry Service, Great Lakes Forest Research Center leaflet. Agdex 330. Concise summaries,
one species per sheet. Black walnut, bur oak, red oak.
Althen, F.W. von. Ten-year results of thinning and fertilizing of a pole-sized black walnut
plantation. 1976. Environment Canada Forestry Service, Great Lakes Forest Research Center
report O-X-245. Agdex 246. For field plantations of black walnut and red pine, 27 years old in
1965, fertilization of field plantations gave a 25% increase in growth over 10 years, but growth
of a matching plantation in an opening of a sugar maple woods was double that of the
unfertilized field plantations.
Althen, F.W. von Preliminary guide to site preparation and weed control in hardwood plantations
in southern Ontario. Canadian Forestry Service O-X-288. 1979. Agdex 326. In contrast to
conifers, hardwood seedlings planted in fields with competing vegetation never produce stems of
sawlog or veneer quality, the only products of commerical value for them.
Althen, F.W. von et.al. Black walnut establishment: six-year survival and growth of
containerised and 1+0 seedlings. Tree Planters Notes 37(1):11-14 (1986). Survival of
containerized seedlings was lower, growth higher the first year after transplanting.
Althen, F.W. von et.al. Performance of black walnut - white pine plantations in southwestern
Ontario. Canadian Forestry Service & OMNR Joint Report 13. 1988. Agdex 330.
Interplanting walnut with white pine does not reduce the need for competition control for good
growth of the walnuts.
Althen, F.W. von. Effects of weed control and irrigation on 7 and 8-year growth of planted black
walnut. 4th Black Walnut Symposium pp.103-113, 30 July-2 August 1989, Carbondale IL.
Agdex 246. Grass and weed control via annual application of glyphosate or Simazine gave 5.5 m
growth, twice-monthly mowing only 17 cm, over the 8 years following planting of a pure black
walnut field plantation.
Althen, F.W. von. The effects of alternate-row interplanting of five species on black walnut
growth. Forestry Canada Report O-X-409 (1990). Agdex 246. Mean 10-year growth was much
better when interplanted with autumn-olive than when interplanted with black locust (next best),
European alder, bur oak, white pine, or in a pure plantation, due to natural competition control
and nitrogen fixation.
Althen, F.W. von. Sowing and planting shagbark and bitternut hickories on former farmland in
southern Ontario.Forestry Canada Report O-X-403 (1990). Agdex 240. Poor results were
obtained after 5 years with direct seeding, container grown and bare-root seedlings, with or
without interplanted autumn-olive. Improved afforestation techniques are needed for these
Angier, Bradford. Field guide to medicinal wild plants. 1978. Stackpole Books, PA. 320 pp.
Arnason, Thor et.al. The use of plants for food and medicine by native peoples of eastern
Canada. Cdn.J.Botany 59(11):2189-2325 (1981).
Arno, J. Walnut, the cabinetwood par-excellence. Fine Woodworking May/June 1986:41-43.
Agdex 335. "In walnut we have a wood that is not too hard, not too soft, not too open-textured,
not too plain", just too expensive, and with too much pure-white sapwood. Decomposing husks
make a useful stain with similar colour to the heartwood - it darkens with time.
Arnold, C. & Freed,J. Report on the nut bearing grove of G.H.M.
Johnson, Esq.. Ontario Fruit Growers Association Annual Report 1877:305-306. Also, an
article from the Weekly Spectator, Hamilton pg.266-268. Agdex 246. A description of a 12-14
acre walnut, hickory and butternut grove and its large nut production.
Arnold, Ingersoll. How to grow black walnuts. Blair &Ketchum's Country Journal,
Nov.1977:48-51. Agdex 246. The basics, by "Mr. Walnut Seed" of New England.
Auten, J.T. Some soil factors associated with the site quality for planted black locust and
black walnut. J.Forestry 43:592-598 (1945).
Bainbridge, D. Acorns: the grain that grows on trees. Mother Earth News 89:80-83 (1984).
Agdex 240/81. Acorns were a staple food of North American Indians, are nutritionally similar to
corn, and can be ground into flour for bread. The white oak (1-year acorn) group are sweetest
Baker, Frederick S. Black walnut: its growth and management. 1921. USDA Bul.933, 43 pp.
Baker, Frederick S. A revised tolerance table. J.Forestry 47:179-181 (1948).
Bey, C.F. Genotypic variation and selection in Juglans nigra. Ph.D. thesis, Iowa State
University, 1968. Agdex 246. Source variation of leaf drop date is 30x family variation. A 9x
cline was observed for apical dominance, none for seedling diameter or seed weight.
Bey, C.F. Corrective pruning young walnut trees - a new twist. 1972. 63rd Annual
Report, NNGA. Agdex 246. The use of tape, lateral shoots
and clippers to train straight leaders for good veneer trees.
Bey, C.F. Growth gains from moving black walnut provenances northward. J.Forestry
Oct.1980:640,641,645. Agdex 330. Optimum growth and timber quality is attained with stock
originating 200 miles south of a plantation site.
Brooks, M.G. Effect of black walnut trees and their products on other vegetation. 1951.
W.Va.Agr.Expt.Sta. Bul. 347, 31 pp.
Burns, Caroline. Saving this fine tree - the American chestnut. Michigan Natural
Resources Feb/Mar 1984:27-33.
Burns, R.M. and Honkala, B.H.
Silvics of North America.
USDA 1990. Agdex 246. The new version of Silvics of Forest Trees of the United States, 1965.
The primary reference of many American foresters.
Callahan, J.C. & Smith, R.P. An economic analysis of black walnut plantation enterprises.
1974. Agdex 246. Commercial black walnut plantations can be moderately profitable, but have a
lower rate of return on investment than general farm crops.
Campbell, R.D. Understanding hardiness. Campberry Farm, RR#1, Niagara-on-the-Lake ON
Canada L0S 1J0. Agdex 240. Hardiness has many facets that are continuously evolving:
minimum temperature tolerance, winter dessication, freeze-thaw cycling, excess moisture
resistance, day-night temperature accomodation, sun scorch resistance, wind resistance, frost-free
season, heat units, unusual spring/fall frosts, moisture distribution, length of winter... It takes
many seedlings of a species to select the best biological fit for a particular area.
Campbell, R.D. Cottage industry nut growing in Ontario. Campberry Farm. 1989. Agdex 240.
Commercial growing of heartnut (especially) and hazelbert in Ottawa is reasonable. An
agroforestry approach is best, evaluating productivity and quality as time progresses, thinning
50% at 10-15 years and an 50% of the remainder at 20-25 years. First crops of heartnut are
normally at 8 years from seeding. Sales of 5-10,000 lb at $2/lb in the shell are reasonable for one
location. Quality nuts and word of mouth are the best sales force.
Chase, S.B. Eastern black walnut germination and seed bed studies. J.Forestry 45:661-668
Chenoweth, Bob. Black Walnut - the history, use, and unrealized potential of a unique American
renewable natural resource. 1995. 334 pp. Many facts, figures, historical quotes and
references on black walnut wood, veneer, and nuts; a detailed evaluation of why the Purdue
selections are not worth their cost.
Churchill, James & Joan. Good food from the woods. Outdoor Life, March 1985:78-82.
Clark, F.B. Black walnut responds to pruning. J.Forestry 53:362-365 (1955).
Clark, F.B. & Seidel, K.W. Growth and quality of pruned black walnut. 1961. US
Forestry Service, Central States Forest Exp.Sta. Tech. Paper 180, 11pp.
Clark, Morton G. A world of nut recipes. 1967. Avenel Books, NY. 240 pp.
Coons, C.F. Managing your woodlot for healthy trees. Ontario Forestry Association Conference,
Kemptville ON, 2 December 1989. Agdex 310. An overview of aims and general practises,
especially selective thinning.
Cutler, D.F. Susceptibility of trees to uprooting by wind. Arboricultural Journal 12(3) 1988.
Agdex 363. During a windstorm at Kew, England in 1987, hickories were uprooted far more than
other tree genera.
Degler, Roy H. Missouri's nut trees. 1956. Mo.Cons. 17(10):1-3 (1956).
Delcourt, Hazel & Paul. Ice age haven for hardwoods. Natural History Sept. 1984:22-28.
Agdex 300. Today's nut trees survived the last glaciation on the loess blufflands just east of the
Mississippi as far north as Illinois.
Downie, M.A. & Hamilton, M. Plants in a new world. U.Toronto Press.
Emerson, R.A. The relation of early maturity to hardiness in trees. Nebraska Agriculture
Experimental Station Annual Report 19:101-110 (1906). Black walnut trees of southern
provenance held their leaves later in fall and suffered more cold injury than those from northern
states & Canada; all sources were equally susceptible to late spring frost injury.
Erdmann, Gayne G. Chemical weed control increases survival and growth in hardwood
plantings. 1967. USDA NC-34, 4 pp illus.
Erdmann, Gayne G. & Green, Lee Roy. Chemical weed control in a 2-year old walnut
planting. 1967. USDA NC-28, 4pp.
Erichsen-Brown, Charlotte. The use of plants for the past 500 years. Breezy Creek Press,
Aurora ON L4G 3H1.
Farrar, John Laird. Trees in Canada. 1995, 502 pp.
Fleguel, V.R. A Literature Review of Butternut and the Butternut Canker. Eastern
Ontario Model Forest report 20. 1996, 32 pp. Silvics, identification, seed, grafting, canker
and conservation. Agdex 340.
Fleming, R.A. Nut culture in Ontario. OMAF publication 494. 1973. Agdex 240/20.
Nut trees can only be grown in the mildest parts of southern Ontario!
Forest, Herman S. The American chestnut in New York. State of New York, The
Conservationist, July/Aug 1978:25-26. Agdex 244. A few hundred isolated trees naturally
survived the blight.
Forest, H.S. et.al. The American chestnut: a bibliography. USDA bibliography 103. 1990.
Agdex 240. 1820 references to Castanea dentata and
on chestnut blight pathogens Endothia or Cryphonectria.
Funk, D.T. Genetics of black walnut. 1970. USDA Forest Service, 13 pp. Agdex
246/47. A technical guide for varietal selectors; 78 references.
Gay, Larry. Heating with wood. 1974. Garden Way Publishing, Vermont. 124 pp.
Gibbons, Euell. Stalking the wild asparagus. 1962. David McKay Corp., NY. 303 pp.
Guenther, A. et.al. Natural volatile organic compound emission rate estimates for
U.S. woodland landscapes. Atmospheric Environment 28(6):1197-1210 1995. Oak trees
produce most of the isoprene found in the continental atmosphere - no one is sure why.
The other prolific isoprene producers are almost all southern trees.
Other nut trees produce almost no VOC's of any kind. Agdex 306.
Hacskaylo, J. Deficiency symptoms of some forest trees. Ohio Agricultural Research &
Development Center Research Bulletin 1015. 68 pp., colour illus.
Hamilton, Cheryl. The man who planted trees. Landmarks, Summer 1988 (OMNR).
Hansen, N.J. & McComb, A.L. Growth of planted ash, black walnut and other species in
relation to observable soil-site characteristics in SE Iowa. J.Forestry 56:473-480 (1958).
Hoadley, R. Bruce. Identifying wood. 1990, 224 pp. How to identify the species of wood in
furniture and lumber yard.
Holch, A.E. Development of roots and shoots of certain deciduous tree seedlings in different
forest sites. Ecology 12:259-298 (1931).
Huber, H.A. Drying firewood. Michigan Natural Resources Nov/Dec 1983:64-65. Drying to 25%
moisture is essential to proper heat production and safe use.
Jaciw, P., Larsson, H.C. Vegetative propagation of black walnut. NNGA 71st Annual Report.
1979. Agdex 240/20. 8-year-old trees were lifted, their tap roots cut into 30 cm lengths, then
planted horizontally. 80% produced viable shoots.
Jaynes, R.A., ed. Nut tree culture in North America. NNGA.
Jones, J.E. et al. Nut Production Handbook for Eastern Black Walnut.
Southwest Missouri RC&D Inc. 1998. Agdex 301. Papers on sawtimber inventory, nut production,
social and economic issues.
Jones, P. ed. Recipes in a Nutshell. ECSONG. 1986. Lots of good-tasting ideas.
Kern, Ken. The owner-built homestead. 1974. Owner-Builder Pubs., CA. 113 pp.
Kirk, Donald R. Wild edible plants. 1970. Naturegraph Pubs., CA. 307 pp.
Krajicek, John E. Planted black walnut does well on cleared forest sites - if competition is
controlled. USDA NC-192 (1975). Agdex 300/22. Control of herbaceous competition is what is
important, not woody plants. Thinning has to be done carefully, as the lack of wind makes the
walnuts more slender and prone to topple.
Krajicek, John E. & Bey, Calvin F. How to train black walnut seedlings. 1969. USDA
Krajicek, John E. & Williams, Robert D. Continued weed control benefits young planted
black walnut. USDA NC-122 (1971). Agdex 246. 3 years of control is best. If done before weeds
get established, tilling is as effective as Atrazine or Simazine.
Kramer, P.J. Amount and duration of growth of various species of tree seedlings. Plant
Physiol. 18:239-251 (1943).
Kramer, P.J. & Kozlowski, T.T. Physiology of Trees. 1960. Mcgraw-Hill
Krochmal, Arnold & Connie. The complete illustrated book of dyes from natural sources.
1974. Doubleday NY, 272 pp.
Krutch, Joseph W. Herbal. 1965. Phaidon Press, Oxford. 255 pp.
Kurtz, W.B. et.al. Investment alternatives for black walnut plantation management. J.Forestry,
Oct. 1984 pp.604-608. Agdex 246. The long no-return wait involved in the production of
veneer-log walnut results in a low rate of return on capital (6.7% at 7.5% interest rate); this may
be improved for a given site by managing a plantation optimally for timber and nuts (7.7%), for
timber, nuts and winter wheat (9.4%).
Lamb, George N. A calendar of the leafing, flowering and seeding of the common trees of
the eastern United States. Monthly Weather Review Supl.2 pt. 1 (1915), 19 pp, illus.
Larssoon, H.C. & Jaciw, P. Prospects for growing Asian nut pines in the temperate and
boreal forests of North America. NNGA 69th Annual Report: 90-95. 1978. Agdex 248. All three
Asian nut pines, Korean, Siberian and dwarf stone pine, should be successful if grown on similar
sites as in their Asian habitats. So far, only Korean pine has been planted, and only in southern
Limstrom, G.A. & Deitschman, G.H. Reclaiming Illinois strip coal lands by forest
planting. Ill.Agr.Expt.Sta.Bul. 547:201-251. Due to poor nutrient levels, hardwoods fail.
Losche, C.K. Black walnut growth better on deep, well-drained bottomland soils. 1973. Agdex
246. On floodplains of southern Illinois, depth to a gravel layer was the most important factor
affecting growth height, followed by internal soil drainage.
MacDaniels, L.H. Nut growing in the northeast. Information Bulletin 71, New York State
College of Agriculture and Life Sciences. 1981. A good section on seeding, layering, budding
Markes, Bob. The return of the black walnuts. Troy-Bilt Owners News, Fall 1988. Agdex 246.
Use electrician's wire clippers to remove shells after cracking - they are shaped like a
squirrel's front teeth.
Martin, G.W. Lumber Co. Ltd. Red oak - a company perspective. Paper presented at an OMNR
seminar, fall 1987.
McKeen, Colin D. Chestnut blight in Ontario: past and present status. Canadian Journal of Plant
Pathology 17(4):295-304 (1995). Two types of hypovirulence are found in Ontario, and many small
groups of surviving trees that seem free of blight.
Miller, Greg. What about chestnuts? The Nutshell Oct. 1988, NNGA. Agdex 244. World
production of chestnuts is 5x108 kg, greater than walnuts + pecans; US market is
5x106 kg. Chinese chestnuts (Castanea mollissima are as good to eat as
American (C.dentata). Most nursery stock are hybrid, which tend to be inferior producers
to pure species. Marketing infrastructure and research are insufficient to support commercial nut
Pastoret, J. Home production of black walnut nutmeats. 1990. University Extension, University
of Missouri-Columbia. Agdex 246/70. Dehusk by hitting them through 1-5/8" holes in 3/4"
plywood, dry in a sack until mid-December, put the nuts in a heavy plastic bag and crack with a
mallet, sift out the fines with a 1/4" screen, separate by hand, allow to dry for a day, then
refrigerate or freeze.
Payne, J.A. et.al. Insect pests and diseases of the pecan. USDA ARM-S-5. 1979. The biology and
damage of 40 insects and diseases, a key to their identification, and their control. Ground
sanitation is effective against most.
Phares, Robert F. & Finn, R.F. Using foliage analysis to help diagnose nutrient deficiencies
in black walnut. NNGA 62nd Annual Report. 1971. Agdex 240/40. The visual appearance of the
leaves can help to diagnose N,P,K,Ca,Mg,S,Fe,Mn deficiencies.
Phares, Robert F. & Williams, Robert D. Crown release promotes faster diameter growth
of pole-size black walnut. USDA NC-124 (1971). Agdex 300/25. The growth of the trees was
directly related to increases in crown area, and not at all to understory management. See also
Clark, F. B. Pole-sized black walnut respond quickly to crown release. J.Forestry 65:406-408
Piedrahita, O. Black walnut toxicity. OMAF. 1984. Agdex 246/80. Toxicity is observed only
when walnut roots make direct contact with roots of species whose roots contain oxidizing
Poncavage, J. Native nutmeats. Organic Gardening Nov. 1992:45-49. Shagbark hickory ("the
best tasting nut in all the world"), black walnut, butternut, James Early pecan, Chinese chestnut
and American hazelnut.
Preston, Richard. North American trees. 1961. Iowa State University Press. 395 pp.
Qi, Y. et.al. New method for breaking Korean pine seed dormancy. J.Arboriculture
19(2):113-117 (1993). Drop seed in 70°C water, let cool to room temperature and soak for 6
days, then stratify at 3°C for 3 months.
Reardon, S.R. Discovering woodlot gold. Michigan Natural Resources Nov/Dec 1983:59-63.
Agdex 300/10. Keeping a woodlot 'the way it is' requires harvesting and renewal, but most
woodlot owners don't. Private forest management can generate income, support wildlife and
Reed, C.A. Nut tree propagation. USDA Farmers' Bulletin 1501. 1926.
Agdex 240/24. 46 pp. Layering, grafting and budding. Lots of photographs and drawings.
Reaman, D.E. The trail of the black walnut. United Empire Loyalist pioneers looked for black
walnuts to identify the deep rich well-drained loam on which they could prosper.
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Provided by ECSONG. Feel free to copy with a credit.