ECSONG: A Nut Growers' Manual - References

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ECSONG: A Nut Growers' Manual - References

Primary References

The documents in the following list are considered very important references for nut growing in the eastern Ontario and western Quebec region.

  • "Nut Tree Culture in North America". Richard A. Jaynes, Editor. Northern Nut Growers Association, Inc (NNGA).
  • "Nut Culture in Ontario". Publication 494, Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food (OMAF).
  • "Insect and Disease Control in the Home Garden". Publication 64, Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food (OMAF).
  • "Common Pests of Trees in Ontario". Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR).
  • "Guide to Weed Control". Publication 75, Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food (OMAF).
  • "Preliminary Guide to Weed Control in Hardwood Plantations in Southern Ontario". F.W. von Althen. Report 0-X-288. Great Lakes Forest Research Centre, Environment Canada, P.O. Box 490, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, P6A 5M7.
  • "Guidelines for Tree Seed Crop Forecasting and Collecting". Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR).
  • "Nut Tree Growing in the North East". L.H. MacDaniel. Publication 71. New York State College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Mailing Room Building 7, Research Park, Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. , USA 14853.
  • "A Guide to Hardwood Planting on Abandoned Farmland in Southern Ontario". F.W. van Althen. Great Lakes Forest Research Centre, Environment Canada, P.O. Box 490, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, P6A 5M7.
  • "Native Trees of Canada." (Eighth Edition or later). Canadian Forestry Service, Environment Canada.
  • "Physiology of Trees". 1960. Paul J. Cramer and Theodore T. Kozlowski, Mcgraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.
  • "Silviculture Fact Sheets for Common Ontario Grown Nut Trees." Society of Ontario Nut Growers (SONG).
  • "Woody Plant Seed Manual". Miscellaneous Publication No. 654. U.S. Forest Service.
  • "Prospects for Growing Asian Nut Pines in North America". 1978. H.C. Larson and P. Jaciw, Forest Tree Improvement and Biomass Institute, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR), Maple, Ontario. In the Sixty-Ninth Annual Report of the Northern Nut Growers Association, Inc (NNGA). Dr Gene Garrett, School of Forestry, Fish and Wildlife, 1-30 Agriculture Bldg., University of Missouri, Columbia, Mo. 65211, U.S.A.
  • "How to Recognize Shrubs". 1966. William Carey Grimm. Castle Books, New York.
  • "Recipes in a Nutshell - The SONG Nut Cookbook". 1987. P. Jones, Editor. The Ottawa Area Chapter of the Society of Ontario Nut Growers, Ottawa.
  • "Use of plants for food and medicine by Native Peoples of eastern Canada." 1981. Thor Arnason, Richard J. Hebda and Timothy Johns. In the Canadian Journal of Botany, Volume 59, Number 11, pp 2189-2325.


Over the ten years the Ottawa Area Chapter of SONG has been in existence, many local people (specially Chapter members) has been growing a variety of nut and bean bearing trees and shrubs. Their collective experiences are the primary source of information on the the particulars of growing these plants in this region. It is fair to say, that without this decade of experimentation and persistence, little truly would be known about nut growing in eastern Ontario and western Quebec.

Of these many people, those with the most experience and knowledge has generously agreed to share what they know with the rest of us. The following list is the names of those members who have contribute knowledge to the manual. Key contributions are identified in the body of the manual by the lower case roman numerals below.

(i) Society of Ontario Nut Growers (SONG) c/o Mrs. Marian Grimo RR #3 Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario L0S 1J0

(ii) George Truscott Ottawa, Ontario (613) 733-4745

(iii) Wm. Dickson Ottawa, Ontario (613) 838-5336

(iv) R. Scally Kanata, Ontario (613) 592-1745

(v) Alec Jones Ottawa, Ontario (613) 828-6459

(vi) Fil Park Ottawa, Ontario (613) 749-1156

(vii) Irene Woolford Winchester, Ontario (613) 784-3385

(viii) Mark Schaefer Kanata, Ontario (613) 836-3703

(ix) L. Harrison Metcalfe, Ontario.

Besides the information that appears in the body of the manual. Mark Schaefer has provided specific hard data on the performance and management of the Korean Nut Pine in the region. His data is as follows:

The National Capital Commission (NCC) Greenbelt trees were planted in white pine soil and are doing very well . The records for the Korean nut pine in the Greenbelt Forest in Gloucester City provide the following hard data: Site Characteristics- Rubicon fine sand, imperfect drainage. Date planted - Spring, 1981. Source of Stock - H.C. Larsson, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Maple, Ontario. Age of Stock - 3+0 stock, twenty five trees. Height of Specimens - 20 centimeters. Spacing in plantation - 3 meters by 3 meters.

Between years 1981-1985; Tending involved grass mowing, plus Amitral¨ and Simazine¨ spot treatment on one meter square around each tree. Survival to 1985 - 80%. Height - Average 94.62 centimeters., Maximum 132.6 centimeters, Minimum 45.7 centimeters.

Growth in 1985 - Average 34.4 centimeters, Maximum 55.9 centimeters, Minimum 12.7 centimeters. (Lamas growth was noted on most trees). Average growth in 1986 - 21.8 centimeters. Average growth in 1987 - 26.1 centimeters.

Survival 1988 - 100% of 1988 trees. Height - Average 148.4 centimeters, Maximum 242 centimeters, Minimum 51 centimeters.

Note: All the minimum growth trees, three out of twenty, were transplanted in 1985 to even up the planting block. These trees do not like transplanting.

Commercial Seedling and Seed Suppliers

Planting seed and stock may be obtained from various sources. Seed can come from superior locally established trees, commercial seed suppliers, or colleague growers. Seedlings can often be obtained from the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR) nurseries, from private nurseries, and last but not least from colleague growers. Grafted seedlings generally must be obtained from private specialist nurseries, though some amateur growers may have grafted stock to trade.

To grow these plants successfully for serious production, it is of the utmost importance to learn from the supplier: the origin (provenance) of the seed, namely country, latitude, longitude, and altitude; the seed characteristics, such as shell, nutmeat, crackability, and flavour; the source tree or stand data, namely age, height, form, condition, soil type, etc; and finally for grafted plants, the stock and scion origin.

Grafted stock of known and proven cultivars will prove to be the most reliable material of all for serious plantings.

(a) Sheffield's Seed Co. Ltd., 273 Auburn Road, Route 34 Locke, New York 13092 U.S.A. Tel. 315-497-1058

(b) Campberry Farm, c/o R.D. Campbell, RR #1 Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario Canada LOS 1J0 Tel. 416-262-4927

(c) Grimo Nut Nursery, RR 3#, Lakeshore Road Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario Canada LOS 1J0

(d) G.R. Hambleton, RR #2 Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario LOS 1J0

Nut Tree Research Centres

To date, we have had no continuity to our regional nut tree research. All levels of government purport to support this field but provide no funds. So it is up to us, the private sector. For the job to be done right, we must organize proper "test plots", and the data from our test plots must be meticulously recorded. Every tree we plant must be traced to its origin- a "nut tree genealogy" so to speak. We must know everything about the tree's past; we must select seed from the best trees, particularly native trees. We cannot afford to "pick up a handful of seed somewhere and stick them in our garden to see what happens". If something special did happen, we would not know which was the parent tree.

We have devastated the genetic base or gene pool of all our native trees, particularly the nut trees. In our haste to clear the land for agriculture and forest products, everything went, but especially the best - first. Now we must search nooks and crannies for the progeny of these once superior trees. Someday, someone will stick a seed in his garden that will perform outstandingly. He will know where it came from - the hunt is on. That is what makes nut growing such an interesting field. That is why we have our organization called SONG!

Ontario has a history of nut growing. A few good orchards in nut production were established in the Toronto west area which is under the climatic influence of the Great Lakes. The Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food (OMAF) established experimental plots for a few promising species at its Horticulture Research Station, Vineland, Ontario (2). Under the direction of R.A. Fleming, a few useful observations were evident: our climate is marginal, the horticultural varieties require further refinement, our choice of species is limited and our production is low, necessitating costly hand labour.

Mr. John Gardner, horticulturalist at OMAF, London, Ontario, is revising Mr. Fleming's publication 494, "Nut Culture in Ontario", to include more recent changes and present research by SONG members.

The Northern Nut Growers Association (NNGA) publication, "Nut Tree Culture in North America" by Richard A. Jaynes is a good reference. (1)

"Nut Growing in the Northeast" by L.H. MacDaniel (8) is an excellent reference for similar conditions in New York State.

Agriculture Canada has taken an interest by setting up experiments at its Smithfield Research Station at Brighton. Mr Sherwood Miller, superintendent, has much hope for nut growing on marginal farm land from Kingston to Goderich. He is experimenting with heartnuts, English walnuts, northern pecans and hazelnuts. Heartnuts and hazelnuts have possibilities in Ontario.

Society of Ontario Nut Growers (SONG) has been awarded an incentive grant for Specialist growers associations by the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food (OMAF) . It is a trial to see if nut growing can prove a viable economic alternative to tobacco growing.

The main centers of nut growing research in Ontario are:

(A) Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources Tree Improvement and Forest Biomass Institute Maple, Ontario Canada LOJ 1E0

(B) The Society of Ontario Nut Growers (SONG), c/o Mrs. Marian Grimo Treasurer, SONG RR #3 Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario LOS 1J0

(C) Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food (OMAF) Horticultural Research Institute of Ontario Vineland Station, Ontario

(D) Canada Agriculture Smithfield Research Station P.O. Box 340 Trenton, Ontario K8V 5R5 Tel - 613-392-3527

Candidate Nut and Bean Bearing Trees and Shrubs

What nut and bean bearing trees and shrubs might be sought and acquired? The Ottawa Area Chapter of SONG provides the following list of species, cultivars, hybrids and varieties considered to have some chance of surviving in the eastern Ontario and western Quebec region:

Aesculus glabra Ohio Buckeye
glabra var. monticola Oklahoma Buckeye
hippocastanum Horse Chestnut
hippocastanum 'Baumanii' Baumann Horsechestnut
hybrida Hybrid Horsechestnut
octandra Sweet Buckeye
octandra f. vestita Carolina yellow buckeye
parviflora Bottlebrush Buckeye
sylvatica Painted Buckeye
x A. carnea (hippocastanum x pavia) Red Horsechestnut
Asimina triloba Pawpaw
Carpinus caroliniana American Hornbeam
Carya cordiformis Bitternut Hickory
glabra Pignut Hickory
illinoensis Pecan
laciniosa Kingnut(Shellbark)Hickory
ovata Shagbark Hickory
tomentosa (alba) Mockernut Hickory
Castanea dentata American Chestnut
mollisima Chinese Chestnut
Catalpa bignonioides Southern Catalpa
bungei China Catalpa
hybrida Hybrid Catalpa
ovata Chinese Catalpa
speciosa Western Catalpa
Celtis glabrata Caucasian Hackberry
laevigata (mississippiensis) Mississippi Sugarberry
occidentalis Common Hackberry
reticulata Netleaf Hackberry
sinensis Chinese Hackberry
tournefortii Oriental Hackberry
Corylus americanus American Hazel
avellana European Hazel
colurna Turkish Hazel
cornuta Beaked Hazel
heterophylla Siberian Hazel
sieboldiana var. mandschurica Manchurian Hazel
Fagus grandifolia American Beech
sylvatica European Beech
Gingko biloba Maidenhair Tree
Gleditsia aquatica Water Locust
capsica Caspian Locust
ferox Ferox Locust
japonica Japan Locust
macracantha Macracanth Locust
sinensis Chinese Locust
triacanthos Honey Locust
Gymnocladus dioica Kentucky Coffee Tree
Juglans ailantifolia Japanese Walnut (Heartnut)
cathayensis Chinese Walnut
intermedia var. vilmoriniana Vilmorins Walnut
cinerea Butternut
mandschurica Manchurian Walnut
microcarpa Little (Texas) Walnut
nigra Black Walnut
regia Persian Walnut
Maackia amurensis Amur Maackia
Macleura pomifera Osage Orange
Ostrya virginiana Eastern Hop Hornbeam
Pinus cembra var. siberica Siberian Stone Pine
koraiensis Korean Nut (Stone) Pine
peuce Balkan Pine
Quercus alba White Oak
alba X bebbiana Bebbs Oak
bicolor Swamp White Oak
macrocarpa Bur Oak
muehlenburghii Chinkapin Oak
palustris Pin Oak
prinus Chestnut Oak
robur English Oak
rubra Red Oak
rubra 'Aurea' Golden Oak
Robinia ambigua Decaisneana Decaisne Locust
fertilis 'Monument' Monument Locust
pseudoacacia Black Locust

Provided by ECSONG. Feel free to copy with a credit.