ECSONG: A Nut Growers' Manual - References
The documents in the following list are considered very important references for nut growing in the eastern Ontario and western Quebec region.
Over the ten years the Ottawa Area Chapter of SONG has been in existence, many local people (specially Chapter members) has been growing a variety of nut and bean bearing trees and shrubs. Their collective experiences are the primary source of information on the the particulars of growing these plants in this region. It is fair to say, that without this decade of experimentation and persistence, little truly would be known about nut growing in eastern Ontario and western Quebec.
Of these many people, those with the most experience and knowledge has generously agreed to share what they know with the rest of us. The following list is the names of those members who have contribute knowledge to the manual. Key contributions are identified in the body of the manual by the lower case roman numerals below.
(i) Society of Ontario Nut Growers (SONG) c/o Mrs. Marian Grimo RR #3 Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario L0S 1J0
(ii) George Truscott Ottawa, Ontario (613) 733-4745
(iii) Wm. Dickson Ottawa, Ontario (613) 838-5336
(iv) R. Scally Kanata, Ontario (613) 592-1745
(v) Alec Jones Ottawa, Ontario (613) 828-6459
(vi) Fil Park Ottawa, Ontario (613) 749-1156
(vii) Irene Woolford Winchester, Ontario (613) 784-3385
(viii) Mark Schaefer Kanata, Ontario (613) 836-3703
(ix) L. Harrison Metcalfe, Ontario.
Besides the information that appears in the body of the manual. Mark Schaefer has provided specific hard data on the performance and management of the Korean Nut Pine in the region. His data is as follows:
The National Capital Commission (NCC) Greenbelt trees were planted in white pine soil and are doing very well . The records for the Korean nut pine in the Greenbelt Forest in Gloucester City provide the following hard data: Site Characteristics- Rubicon fine sand, imperfect drainage. Date planted - Spring, 1981. Source of Stock - H.C. Larsson, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Maple, Ontario. Age of Stock - 3+0 stock, twenty five trees. Height of Specimens - 20 centimeters. Spacing in plantation - 3 meters by 3 meters.
Between years 1981-1985; Tending involved grass mowing, plus Amitral¨ and Simazine¨ spot treatment on one meter square around each tree. Survival to 1985 - 80%. Height - Average 94.62 centimeters., Maximum 132.6 centimeters, Minimum 45.7 centimeters.
Growth in 1985 - Average 34.4 centimeters, Maximum 55.9 centimeters, Minimum 12.7 centimeters. (Lamas growth was noted on most trees). Average growth in 1986 - 21.8 centimeters. Average growth in 1987 - 26.1 centimeters.
Survival 1988 - 100% of 1988 trees. Height - Average 148.4 centimeters, Maximum 242 centimeters, Minimum 51 centimeters.
Note: All the minimum growth trees, three out of twenty, were transplanted in 1985 to even up the planting block. These trees do not like transplanting.
Planting seed and stock may be obtained from various sources. Seed can come from superior locally established trees, commercial seed suppliers, or colleague growers. Seedlings can often be obtained from the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (OMNR) nurseries, from private nurseries, and last but not least from colleague growers. Grafted seedlings generally must be obtained from private specialist nurseries, though some amateur growers may have grafted stock to trade.
To grow these plants successfully for serious production, it is of the utmost importance to learn from the supplier: the origin (provenance) of the seed, namely country, latitude, longitude, and altitude; the seed characteristics, such as shell, nutmeat, crackability, and flavour; the source tree or stand data, namely age, height, form, condition, soil type, etc; and finally for grafted plants, the stock and scion origin.
Grafted stock of known and proven cultivars will prove to be the most reliable material of all for serious plantings.
(a) Sheffield's Seed Co. Ltd., 273 Auburn Road, Route 34 Locke, New York 13092 U.S.A. Tel. 315-497-1058
(b) Campberry Farm, c/o R.D. Campbell, RR #1 Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario Canada LOS 1J0 Tel. 416-262-4927
(c) Grimo Nut Nursery, RR 3#, Lakeshore Road Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario Canada LOS 1J0
(d) G.R. Hambleton, RR #2 Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario LOS 1J0
To date, we have had no continuity to our regional nut tree research. All levels of government purport to support this field but provide no funds. So it is up to us, the private sector. For the job to be done right, we must organize proper "test plots", and the data from our test plots must be meticulously recorded. Every tree we plant must be traced to its origin- a "nut tree genealogy" so to speak. We must know everything about the tree's past; we must select seed from the best trees, particularly native trees. We cannot afford to "pick up a handful of seed somewhere and stick them in our garden to see what happens". If something special did happen, we would not know which was the parent tree.
We have devastated the genetic base or gene pool of all our native trees, particularly the nut trees. In our haste to clear the land for agriculture and forest products, everything went, but especially the best - first. Now we must search nooks and crannies for the progeny of these once superior trees. Someday, someone will stick a seed in his garden that will perform outstandingly. He will know where it came from - the hunt is on. That is what makes nut growing such an interesting field. That is why we have our organization called SONG!
Ontario has a history of nut growing. A few good orchards in nut production were established in the Toronto west area which is under the climatic influence of the Great Lakes. The Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food (OMAF) established experimental plots for a few promising species at its Horticulture Research Station, Vineland, Ontario (2). Under the direction of R.A. Fleming, a few useful observations were evident: our climate is marginal, the horticultural varieties require further refinement, our choice of species is limited and our production is low, necessitating costly hand labour.
Mr. John Gardner, horticulturalist at OMAF, London, Ontario, is revising Mr. Fleming's publication 494, "Nut Culture in Ontario", to include more recent changes and present research by SONG members.
The Northern Nut Growers Association (NNGA) publication, "Nut Tree Culture in North America" by Richard A. Jaynes is a good reference. (1)
"Nut Growing in the Northeast" by L.H. MacDaniel (8) is an excellent reference for similar conditions in New York State.
Agriculture Canada has taken an interest by setting up experiments at its Smithfield Research Station at Brighton. Mr Sherwood Miller, superintendent, has much hope for nut growing on marginal farm land from Kingston to Goderich. He is experimenting with heartnuts, English walnuts, northern pecans and hazelnuts. Heartnuts and hazelnuts have possibilities in Ontario.
Society of Ontario Nut Growers (SONG) has been awarded an incentive grant for Specialist growers associations by the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food (OMAF) . It is a trial to see if nut growing can prove a viable economic alternative to tobacco growing.
The main centers of nut growing research in Ontario are:
(A) Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources Tree Improvement and Forest Biomass Institute Maple, Ontario Canada LOJ 1E0
(B) The Society of Ontario Nut Growers (SONG), c/o Mrs. Marian Grimo Treasurer, SONG RR #3 Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario LOS 1J0
(C) Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food (OMAF) Horticultural Research Institute of Ontario Vineland Station, Ontario
(D) Canada Agriculture Smithfield Research Station P.O. Box 340 Trenton, Ontario K8V 5R5 Tel - 613-392-3527
What nut and bean bearing trees and shrubs might be sought and acquired? The Ottawa Area Chapter of SONG provides the following list of species, cultivars, hybrids and varieties considered to have some chance of surviving in the eastern Ontario and western Quebec region:
Provided by ECSONG. Feel free to copy with a credit.